I consider very interesting some researchs and projects focussed on the trauma generated by hate-based violence. While the impact of hate crimes/incidents in the Real Life could be a little bit more visible, on line hate-based violence es even more invisible and long-term harmful.
In fact, on line hate speeches are a kind of violence bias-,motivated against a person or group. It produces fear and isolation, and can include post-traumatic stress reactions and related psychosocial and physical problems.
To delve into this topic you can read «To Global Perspectives on the Trauma of Hate-Based ViolenceAn International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies Briefing Paper»